Remote Sensing Technologies

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Test Site Catalog

Site Location: Sioux Falls Range


Sioux Falls Range Design
Sioux Falls Range Design

Sioux Falls test range draped over LiDAR-derived elevation model


Location (City, State, Country): Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA
Altitude above sea level Min/Max/Mean (meters): 345 / 546 / 432
Center Latitude,Longitude (Degrees): 43.555562, -96.745806
UTM Zone: 14 N
Owner: City of Sioux Falls
Points of Contact: Aparajithan Sampath
Purpose: The Sioux Falls test range has been designed to evaluate, validate and characterize aerial orthophotos as well as high resolution satellite images. Accurate and standardized high resolution orthophotos (Reference image) for this area will be used to determine the relative accuracy of other high resolution aerial and satellite images. Co-registration analysis will be performed between this image and other search images. The results of the analysis will provide insights into the accuracy of the imaging system.
Range Layout: The range consists of a three part design. The first part consists of 12” GSD (1 foot) orthophotos over the Counties of Minnehaha and Lincoln. The second part consists of 6” GSD (0.5 feet) orthophotos, over the City of Sioux Falls and surrounding areas and the third part consists of 3” GSD (0.25 feet) orthophotos covering the City of Sioux Falls.

GSD County/City name Area (sq km)
12”/30.48cm Minnehaha County/Lincoln County 2160/1160
6″/15.24cm City of Sioux Falls and surrounding areas 760
3″/7.512cm City of Sioux Falls 115
Description: The Sioux Falls test range for aerial and high resolution remote sensing images is located in the state of South Dakota, USA and covers the Counties of Minnehaha and Lincoln. The topography consists of rolling hills, and a good mix of urban and rural areas, with several small townships and the Sioux Falls Metro area, in the middle of farmlands, hills and rivers in Minnehaha and Lincoln counties.The test range was initially a two part design. The first part consisted of painted targets across the area. However, it was felt that a better process would be to obtain high accuracy aerial orthophotos of the area, and use these orthophotos as the standard for characterizing other systems and products. An Image to Image matching tool is being designed for this process.
Orthophoto Procurement and Accuracy Assessment: The orthophotos for the three areas were procured by a consortium consisting of the USGS, City of Sioux Falls, Minnehaha County and Lincoln County. The USGS carried out an independent accuracy assessment of the orthophotos. A total of 112 photo-identifiable points were surveyed using GPS-RTK survey method. The coordinates of these points were then compared with the coordinates obtained from the orthophotos. A summary of the survey results is presented in the table below.

12″ 6″ 3″
CE90 1.46ft/0.44m 0.83ft/0.25m 0.59ft/0.18m
CE95 1.68ft/0.51m 0.95ft/0.29m 0.67ft/0.20m
High Accuracy Image chips: For assessment of high accuracy aerial data, the USGS has come up with a plan for using high accuracy image chips. The image chips are smaller portions of the reference orthophotos surrounding the check points. These image chips are more accurate than the orthophotos, because the locations of the centers of these chips have the same accuracy as that of the GPS RTK survey (~ 1.50 cm). Automated correlation based matching procedures will be used to assess the accuracy of the data.
Digital Elevation Model: A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), based on LiDAR elevations has also been generated for the Sioux Falls range. The point spacing is 1m and the vertical accuracy is expected to be 18.5 cm on bare earth and 37.5 cm in obscured areas. The accuracy of the DEM is currently under study.View Portion of Sioux Falls Draped over LiDARView Sioux Falls Range DEM
Additional Downloads: Google Earth KMZ – Complete Range (95KB)Google Earth KMZ – Lincoln County Range (36KB)Google Earth KMZ – Minnehaha County Range (39KB)Google Earth KMZ – 6″ Range (17KB)

Google Earth KMZ – 3″ Range (6KB)

Sioux Falls Range Shape Files (26KB)

Additional Photos

Sioux Falls DEM

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Page Last Modified: January 8, 2013